Crushing grain technology


                                 Crushing grain technology


High quality and economical fodder

With the help of kneading technology, it is possible to produce high quality feed for livestock and poultry in a cost effective manner. Due to reduced investments (drying, storage), as well as reducing energy costs (fuel, electricity) the profitability of production is increasing. Costs of wrought grains are much lower than the costs of dried cereals.

Flattened grains are ready for consumption with no additional processing. Directly from the storage unit itself can be served as fodder, and in the case of cattle, it could be integral part of the mixture (TMR) or as a liquid form of nutrients in pig nutrition.

Silage by crushing the grain is based on fermentation, driven by lactic acid bacteria. Suitable environment for the fermentation of lactic acid can be provided by reducing the pH of wrought cereals at 4 and creating anaerobic conditions.



Methods of storing grain

Drying: Grains are dried to a moisture content of not more than 14 percent. It is a traditional and safe method of storage in the long run. The disadvantages are  high cost and large impurity content of ground dried grains.

Kneading: Cereals are raised above 25 percent moisture before full maturation, to be followed in anaerobic conditions performed kneading and ensiling, with the use of liquid preparations SalCurb K2 and K4 SalCurb liquid manufactured by Kemin Europa.

Whole wet grain preservation: collected grains with a moisture content between 15 and 25 percent are then carried out for conservation through product MycoCurb liquid and liquid MycoCurb ES, to prevent spoilage due to mold and yeast fungus. Grain storage is carried out under anaerobic conditions.

Ensiling of whole grains: After collecting Whole grain, silage immediately starts with liquid product SalCurb K2 and K4 SalCurb liquid.



Technology of production and collection of return


Cereals intended for kneading may be grown in a similar manner as cereals intended for drying, except that grains for kneading are collected 2-3 weeks earlier, while they still have a yellowish color. Namely, for the energy and protein composition of the grains they are at their maximum level. Earlier collection allows the cultivation of later varieties for higher yield potential. The use of fertilizer is more elastic, and manure can be freely used.

Yellowish color cereals are softer and larger than the mature grain. The percentage of moisture is usually between 30 and 40 percent. Combine for harvest collection should be set in accordance with cereals high humidity. Distance between the concave and drum needs to be adjusted to a minimum, and the number of RPM of the drum to the maximum. Sifter are opening fully, and the fans on halfway. During the collection of yield reduction in lower speed and raising of height of the header reduces the risk of clogging.


About kneading briefly

- Collecting yield performs 3-4 weeks before the normal period, while the grains are still in yellowish color. The optimum moisture content of grain for the application of this technology is 30-40%.
- Mashing perform on the field or on-site storage through blenders Murska, mash all cereals
- Use additive SalCurb K2 liquid or liquid SalCurb Q4 compared to 3-5 liters per ton
- Perform storage in silo-Trench, in pits lined with foil, in hermetically sealed "sausages" or silo    

- Pay attention to thoroughly compression and coverage
- The use of sealed grain can begin three weeks after the closing of the silo



  Kneading and ensiling

Special kneading machine Murska is used for grain processing. Additives used during kneading, are placed in the kneader to be equally mixed with cereals. Adequate adjustment is needed for rollers for each grain to be crushed.

Crushed grains with high humidity are easy to compress in order  to displace air, thus providing a good ensiling. If the grains are too dry (moisture content less than 30%), water may be added when kneading. It is better, however, to collect grains with adequate moisture than later to add water. Because of the high moisture content, kneading and ensiling should be done within 24 hours of collection, otherwise it may cause heating of grains. Creating heat poses a particular problem, if additives were not added or if only biological additives are being used.

If mashing grains performs on the field, grain from the combine is directly filled into the kneader where it takes place simultaneously kneading and mixing with additives. At the end flattened grains are placed on a trailer by elevator and transported to the storage place.


Application of liquid products SalCurb K2 and K4 liquid SalCurb

In the process of kneading it is recommended to use additives SalCurb K2 liquid and liquid SalCurb K4. Additives are reducing Ph value of wrought cereals and directly prevent spread of unwanted microbes. Wrought grain size may be treated with undiluted additive which prevents deterioration of the upper layer. Additives SalCurb liquid K2 and K4 liquid SalCurb provide high nutritional value for wrought grain until feeding.


Dosage of liquid additives SalCurbK2 and SalCurb K4 liquid is carried out in accordance with the percentage of moisture of wrought cereals

The percentage of moisture                  Dosage                

35-45 %                                                     3 liters/ton

30-35%                                                      4 liters/ton

25-30%                                                      5 liters/ton

In cultures with high protein content, such as peas and beans, the dose should be increased to 1 liter / ton. The additives are added by the applicator.



Crushed grains can be stored in airtight "sausages", in silo-Trench, in bunkers or in anaerobic silo towers. Compression in the silo-Trench or receiving hoppers can be done using a tractor with a bucket or other suitable equipment. If kneading takes place at the silo, grain elevators are transmitted with trailer to kneader. Cereals can be entered even from concrete cleaned bunkers in kneader using machines for loading. Capacity of kneader is determined with amount of grain provided for mashing, as well as the machine's capacity, since it is necessary to collect grain by the combine without any interruption. The biggest Murska kneaders are capable of processing about 50 tons of grain per hour, which allows the use combines of high capacity. The most effective kneaders run  tractors, one tractor is driving kneader, and second is filling bunker.  Crushed grains can be stored in airtight "sausages". The simplest method of storage is in a bunker on the edge of the fields.

Regardless of the method of storage, the most important factors are thoroughly, strong kneading, uniformly dosing of additives, careful compression, adequate closure and eventually setting weights on top of the entrance of the bunker.

Receiving hopper should be closed for 2-3 weeks in order to allow sufficient time for fermentation, which reduces the risk of warming. The dimensions of the bunker for storage should be adjusted so that the speed of feeding the material from the entire front surfaces as often uses (consumption should be at least 2 meters per week). The front surface should always be flat and hard. The penetration of air can cause heat buildup, and thus the spread of mold and yeast fungus on the front surface.




Grain storage in the "sausages"

Kneaded cereal storage in plastic bags ("sausages") is followed by a low cost, and it is a simple method of processing and storage. Grains are collected and shipped to the place where  kneading and grain crushing operations are going to be done and packed into "sausages". Packing in "sausage" is very simple because it do not require additional compression or  weight setting. Warehouse is not necessary, in particular place. Dimension of "sausage" can be adjusted to yields. Kneading in the "sausage" is elastic procedure, because you can stop with kneading any time and start over again. Storage in  "sausages" is less depending on weather conditions, than storage in the receiving hoppers.


Kneading is economical

The cost of crushing and drying was compared by TTS Institute of Finland. Calculation shows unequivocally that kneading significantly reduces the cost of conservation. After a total of 200 tons of grain was kneaded instead of dried, variable costs were decreased by 58, and total spending by 54 percent, resulting in savings were 10,000 euro’s. The larger amount of kneading is, the greater are the savings: For preservation of 1000 tons achieved savings were more than 30,000 euro’s. Additional cost savings were achieved in storage of wrought cereals in plastic bags instead in silos. For precise economic calculation detailed specific data is needed.

Process of conservation and the impact on the amount of costs

The amount of grain intended for storage (tons)

The cost of the euro / ton              

100 tons

Kneading in silos                              Kneading in sacks                        Drying

       48,6                                                          49,2                                         133

200 tona

Kneading in silos                           Kneading in sacks                           Drying

       40,2                                                          35,9                                         87,2

1.000 tona

Kneading in silos                             Kneading in sacks                         Drying

       26,9                                                          18,7                                         49,8

In addition to economic benefits, flattened grains carry a variety of other advantages over dried grains. They are easy to consume, grains without impurities, collecting yield, less dependent on weather conditions and high nutritional value.


High quality and economical fodder

Despite earlier performed, the collection of yield, nutrient content in the crushed grains is similar to grains collected in a mature state. The fermentation process during ensiling leads to some changes in the structure and composition of the grain nutrients. The sugar content is reduced during the fermentation since the sugar is converting to lactic acid. Reduces the starch content, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), phytate phosphorus, vitamin E and glucose B.



Cattle which consume flattened grains is growing the same, even faster than those who consume dried grains. Numerous studies confirm that dairy cows which are consuming wrought cereals are giving the same amount of milk as the cows that are consuming dried grains. In the case of ruminants, full nutritional value of wrought cereals is near the nutritional value of dried cereal.

Many studies point to the fact that changes in diet of dairy cows, does not reflect on the yield and content of milk, what is reflected in the shift from dried grains and consumption of cereal silage with a large percentage of moisture. According to a recent Finnish study, cows were given a mixture consisting of 55% grass silage, 29% barley, 10% of canola seed, 5% sugar molasses and minerals. The barley is dried or crushed. Type of grains did not affect on the yield of milk. Regardless of the diet,  cows were repeatedly giving 30-34 liters of milk per day.First calving cows were giving approx 25 liters. However, the percentage of milk fat of cows that were fed with crushed grains, was higher. This is consistent with the results of studies into the fermentation in the rumen, namely, in dairy cows that were fed with flattened grains, higher amount of acetic and butyric acids in the rumen fluid were shown.

The actual amount of wrought grain used for feeding, in mixture is larger than the amount of dry cereal, since the content of dry matter content of cereals wrought is lower. Otherwise, flattened grains can be administered as dry grains, therefore, feeding can completely replace the dry cereals. The percentage of moisture in wrought grains can be adjusted, so it is expedient on every 12 weeks to determine the dry matter of content. In this way, we have insight into the amount of dry matter, which is given to animals. The content of dry matter can be determined by using a microwave oven and scales.




Crushed grains can be given to pigs. They are ideal for liquid feed. Deviation from 8-10% solids content in cereals in practice has no influence on the daily growth or significant change in feeding. The content of vitamin E was lower than in the crushed dried grains, which should be borne in mind when feeding.


The digestibility of nutrients in the crushed and dried barley in pigs in development

The digestibility  %           Dried barley    Rolled barley

Organic matter                         85                             88

Crude protein                           81                              87

Phosphorus                              39                              53  

Thanks to the better digestibility, energy value of rolled barley is 5% higher than in dried barley. The digestibility of rolled barley is better because of the earlier collection of yields and lower glucose B. As it is well known, glucose B in pigs and poultry, increases the viscosity of the bowel, leading to lower digestibility of nutrients. Lactic acid, which is produced when ensiling, along with acidifiers are positively effecting on digestion. Pig feeding with flattened grains could be fully replaced with dried grains.

Compared with the administration of dried grains, crushed grains food in weaning piglets is improving the utilization of nutrients and reducing the incidence of diarrhea

                                      Dried barley        Rolled barley

FCR (kg DM/kg)                  2,02                       1,98

Index diarrhea                      7,7                         4,0

FCR = coefficient of utilization

Index diarrhea = duration of diarrhea on a daily basis x weight diarrhea

Fattening pigs grow better with flattened than with dried grains.


                                                             Dried barley         Rolled barley

Time of Slaughter (days)                             87,6                           84,6

Daily increase in mass (g / day)                 876                            912

FCR (kg DM/kg)                                          2,31                           2,23


FCR = coefficient of utilization

Compared to dried grains, wrought cereals use have reduced phosphorus secretion through the urine. A small portion of phosphorus  is accessible to animals as it is bounded to phytic acid. Phytic acid is, however, decomposing during the ensiling due to the high moisture content, the acidic environment and the additive (s) introduced.

The amount of phosphorus bound to phytic acid in the flattened grains is only one fifth of the phosphorus contained in the dried grain. As a result, the digestibility of phosphorus in feed, which contains flattened grains is increased by 15%. It is estimated that feeding with crushed grains of 150-200 grams reduces the excretion of phosphorus per pig fattener during the entire cycle.

The digestibility of phosphor in pigs, with the use of dried cereal is 38.9 percent, and the use of wrought acid-treated grain, 52.8 percent.




Crushed grains can also be consumed by livestock. Crushed grains increase daily mass slaughter of chickens and the coefficient of utilization.

This is related to the energy content of wrought grain, which is 25% higher than in dried cereals. Increased energy content is a consequence of low glucose B, which results with lower viscosity of intestinal contents. It is a similar effect as in the enzyme gluconate B. Compared with dried grains, digestibility of lysine and threonine is improving feeding of poultry with crushed grains for slaughter. Similarly as in the case of pigs, improves digestibility and phosphorus.

Energy value of wrought cereals and amino acid digestibility in poultry for slaughter, compared with dried grains

Energy value of                                125%

The digestibility of amino acids     105%


  Economical fodder high nutritious value obtained by crushing cereal

- Flattened grains have a high nutritional value
- Flattened grains are ideal for the mixture
- The cost of energy unit with wrought grains is smaller than with dried grains
- Utilization of phosphorus at pig and poultry farming is much better in the case of wrought consuming than dried grains
- Flattened grains fit into liquid feeding systems
- Flattened grains are free of impurities
- Kneading is a way of grain processing, which requires small energy costs
- Kneading allows the collection of the late varieties of cereals and maize
-collecting yield can be done in adverse weather conditions
- Drying capacity’s are not limited with collection of  yield

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Company ISV Zrt. was founded in 1968. History of the company is closely connected with the history of agriculture in Hungary. Logo with three letters has become an "classic" in the market of livestock concentrate production. Name-an acronym derived from the names of the original companies (Iparszerű Sertéstartó Termelőszövetkezetek Közös vállalkozás - Joint venture cooperative production for industrial pigs).

Also, the acronym for our motto: Innovation, expertise, vision!